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Electronics 101
Electronic Circuits
Code examples
Theory in examples
All circuits are simulated with either
TINA TI
or
Multisim BLUE
simulation software. I recommend downloading both of them.
555 Timer Circuit
If the 555 timer circuit is connected as shown in the Figure shown below (pins 2 and 6 connected) it will trigger itself and free run as a multivibrator. The external capacitor charges through R1 + R2 and discharges through R2. Thus the duty cycle may be precisely set by the ratio of these two resistors.
Determining Internal Impedance of a Battery
The internal resistance of a voltage source (R
_{int}
), can be determined by placing a known resistance or R across the open terminals of the circuit shown in the figure above.
V
_{OC}
is the open circuit voltage (5V in this example) V
_{R}
is the voltage across the same terminals when an external resistor, 1k, is connected (V= 2.5V in the example)
R
_{int}
= R(V
_{OC}
- V
_{R}
) / V
_{R}
Initial Conditions of Switched circuits
The switch has been open for a long time before closing at time
t = 0
. Find
v
_{c}
(0
^{+}
)
and
i
_{L}
(0
^{+}
)
, the values of the capacitor voltage and inductor current immediately after the switch closes. Let
v
_{c}
(∞)
and
i
_{L}
(∞)
denote the values of the capacitor voltage and inductor current after the switch has been closed for a long time. Find
v
_{c}
(∞)
and
i
_{L}
(∞)
.
The Series RLC Circuit with DC Excitation
Let us consider the series RCL circuit of Figure 1.1 where the initial conditions are I
_{L}
(0) = I
_{0}
, v
_{C}
(0)= V
_{0}
, and is the unit step function. We want to find an expression for the curren i(t) for t > 0.
Response of Parallel GLC Circuits with DC Excitation.
Consider the circuit shown in the figure below where the initial conditions are I
_{L}
(0) = I
_{0}
, v
_{C}
(0)= V
_{0}
, and u
_{0}
(t) is the unit step function. We want to find an expression for the curren i(t) for t > 0.
First Order Low Pass Filter
The voltage drop across the capacitor alternates between charging up to Vc and discharging down to zero according to the input voltage.
First Order High Pass Filter
The voltage drop across the capacitor alternates between charging up to Vc and discharging down to zero according to the input voltage.
Phasor: A Series RL Circuit.
In an A.C. circuit containing inductance L and resistance R, the applied voltage V is the phasor sum of V
_{R}
and V
_{L}
, and thus the current I lags the applied voltage V by an angle lying between 0
^{o}
and 90
^{o}
(depending on the values of V
_{R}
and V
_{L}
). In any A.C. series circuit the current is common to each component and is thus taken as the reference phasor.
Phasor: A Series RC Circuit.
In an A.C. circuit containing inductance L and resistance R, the applied voltage V is the phasor sum of V
_{R}
and V
_{C}
, and thus the current I lags the applied voltage V by an angle lying between 0
^{o}
and 90
^{o}
(depending on the values of V
_{R}
and V
_{C}
). In any A.C. series circuit the current is common to each component and is thus taken as the reference phasor.
A Simple Buffer Circuit
A buffer amplifier, or a buffer, is a circuit that provides an electrical impedance transformation from input to output. Input of the buffer has hight inpedance to prevent loading of the signal source. Output of the buffer has a low impedance. Two main types of buffer exist: the voltage buffer and the current buffer.
Circuits For Kids
My Son's Youtube Videos.
Tech and Science News
MPLAB Xpress Cloud-based IDE
Analog Devices Circuit Design Tools & Calculators
Analog Engineer's Pocket Reference - pdf file
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